Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Today we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones. 1 of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. But phones 2 on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize. 3 you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you 4 can’t find north, a few tricks to help you navigate 5 to civilization, one of which is to follow the land...
When you find yourself well 6 a trail, but not in a completely 7 area, you have to answer two questions: Which 8 is downhill, in this particular area? And where is the nearest water source? Humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, and on supplies of fresh water. 9 , if you head downhill, and follow any H2O you find, you should 10 see signs of people.
If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be 11 how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings.
Another 12 : Climb high and look for signs of human habitation. 13 , even in dense forest, you should be able to 14 gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve 15 the woods. Head toward these 16 to find a way out. At night, scan the horizon for 17 light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.
18 , assuming you’re lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the 19 we leave on the landscape. Trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can 20 you to civilization.
1. [A]Some [B]Most [C]Few [D]All
2. [A]put[B]take[C]run [D]come
3. [A]Since [B] If [C] Though [D]Until
4. [A]formally [B] relatively [C] gradually [D] literally
5. [A] back [B] next [C] around [D] away
6. [A]onto [B]off[C]across [D]alone
7. [A]unattractive[B] uncrowded [C]unchanged [D]unfamiliar
8. [A] site[B]point [C]way [D]place
9. [A] So [B] Yet [C]Instead [D]Besides
10. [A]immediately [B] intentionally [C]unexpectedly [D] eventually
11. [A]surprised [B]annoyed [C]frightened [D]confused
12. [A] problem [B]option [C]view [D]result
13. [A] Above all [B]In contrast [C] On average [D] For example
14. [A]bridge [B]avoid [C]spot [D]separate
15. [A] from [B] through [C]beyond [D] under
16. [A] posts [B]links [C]shades [D]breaks
17. [A] artificial [B] mysterious [C] hidden [D] limited
18. [A] Finally [B] Consequently [C] incidentally [D] Generally
19. [A] memories [B] marks [C] notes [D] belongings
20. [A] restrict [B] adopt [C] lead [D] expose
1. 生活在一個GPS系統，數字地圖和其他導航應用程序都在我們的智能手機上輕易獲取”?？崭裰蟮恼Z句與前面語義方向一致，再考慮到句中的without a phone，可知，此處需要雙重否定表達肯定，所以，選擇few，符合文意;
2. 【C】run 固定搭配;此題考查與介詞on的搭配情況;run on battery表示手機使用電池得以運行;其他選項的搭配為：put on(增加;假裝;使…上場);take on(承擔;呈現;具有;流行);come on( 快點;開始;要求;上演;);語義搭配不通順，故選擇run on搭配;
3. 【B】If 邏輯關系;此處考查邏輯關系?？崭裉幩诰錇?ldquo;... 你在沒有電話或指南針的情況下迷路，...找不到北方，我們有一些技巧可以幫助你導航...文明”;前后句之間構成假設的邏輯關系，所以選擇if;其余選項：since(因為，自從); though(雖然); until(直到) 代入后，不符合語義表達;
5. 【A】back詞義辨析題;出題處的語義表達“我們有一些技巧可以幫助你導航...文明”，只有back 與前文的lost(迷路)形成相互呼應，故而選擇back;
6. 【B】off 詞義辨析題;空格所在句提到“為當你發現自己...路徑。 但不是完全...的
因此，根據句意表達，off(遠離， 離開)符合句意;其它選項：onto(在…之上;對…了解);across (穿過，根穿)，alone (獨白地，單獨地)，故選擇off;
7. 【D】unfamiliar 詞義辨析題;根據出題處的語義表達，“為當你發現自己...路徑。 但不是完全...的區域”，語義搭配，unfamiliar更符合要求;其他選項：unattractive (不吸引人的);
uncrowded (不利擠的，寬敞的);C選項unchanged (未改變的，無變化的);不符合語義表達;
9. 【A】so邏輯關系題;出題句指出“生活在山谷里的人，基本上需要淡水為生，...如果你下山，沿著水走，你會發現人類的蹤跡...”，此處語義邏輯很明顯，考察因果邏輯關系;故選擇so，其它選項：yet(但是，然而); instead(反而，替代); besides(此外，而且);不符合句義要求;
10. 【D】eventually 詞義辨析題;出題句提及“...如果你下山，沿著水走，你會發現人類的蹤跡...”，只有eventually(最后，終于)符合題目要求，語義通順;其它選項：immediately (立即，立刻);intentionally(故意地，有意地);unexpectedly(出乎意料地);不符合語義表達，故排除;
13. 【D】For example邏輯關系題;出題句前后構抽象到具體的例證關系(前文提到“另一個選擇就是登高尋找有人類居住的標志”，與后文的look for signs形成抽象到具體的過程)，故選擇For example;
14. 【C】spot 詞義辨析題;此題需借助前面的語義內容及邏輯關系輔助做題;此處需填入的動詞和look for 語義相近，故選擇spot(發現)，符合語義表達;其他選項：bridge(架橋，渡過);avoid(避開，消除);separate(分開);不符合語義要求;
16. 【D】breaks語義辨析題;本題為語義題，根據上一句信息，因為人為原因而造成的gaps in the tree line，不難判斷，朝著有樹木缺口的地方走，就能找到出去的路，故D選項breaks為正確答案。
17. 【A】artificial詞義辨析題及邏輯關系題;因題干中such as表示舉例關系，故我們首先根據例子信息可以判斷文中fires and streetlights可以確定火與街燈的共同特征是人造光源，故本題A選項artificial為正確答案。
18. 【A】Finally 語義題;文章后面指出假設你在人類常去的地方迷路，尋找我們在地面上留下的······，因前文已經舉例說明了幾種情況，如當你在一個并非完全不熟悉的環境中迷路······，可知此處應是最后一種假設情況，故本題A選項finally為正確答案。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Financial regulations in Britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. Starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making not only by banks but also bu all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.
“Short-termism” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the Bank of England’s top economist. Andrew Haldane. He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like “Children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.
The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. This has been dubbed “quarterly capitalism”.
In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shortens attention spans in financial markers. “There seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said Commissioner Daniel Gallagher of the US Securities and Exchange Commission in speech this week.
In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” In its latest survey of CEO pay, The Wall Street Journal finds that “ a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.
Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions. In France, shareholders who hold onto a company investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.
Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. Britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.
21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the_________.
A. enhance banker’s sense of responsibility
B. help corporations achieve larger profits
C. build a new system of financial regulation
D. guarantee the bonuses of top executives
22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate_________.
A. the conditions for generating quick profits
B. governments’ impatience in decision-making
C. the solid structure of publicly traded companies
D. “short-termism” in economics activities
23. It is argued that the influence of transient investment on public companies can be__________.
24. The US and France examples are used to illustrate____________.
A. the obstacles to preventing “short-termism”.
B. the significance of long-term thinking.
C. the approaches to promoting “long-termism”.
D. the prevalence of short-term thinking.
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. Failure of Quarterly Capitalism
B. Patience as a Corporate Virtue
C. Decisiveness Required of Top Executives
D. Frustration of Risk-taking Bankers
21.【A】enhance banker's sense of responsibility;細節題。題目中明確出題段落(According to Paragraph 1)及相應的信息點(one motive in imposing the new rule)，因此，答案來源句則為第一段的第三句(The main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution這個規則主要目的是讓銀行家為不良風險負責以及修復公眾對金融機構的信任)，那么答案基本就很容易提取出來。選項中的“sense of responsibility”則對應到句中的“enhance banker's sense of responsibility(增加銀行的責任感)”;而其他的選項則與最佳選項無緣，在定位區間中沒有相應的對應信息。
22.【D】 "short-termism" in economic activities;細節題。題干中的定位信息在“Alfred Marshall”上，直接定位到第二段的第二句“He quotes a giant of classical economies, Alfred Marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting...”，定位信息里的“this financial impatience”則是回指第二段首句的“Short-termism”，故信息點則為“Short-termism”，所以最佳選項則為"short-termism" in economic activities，而其他選項在定位信息中未提及;
23.【B】 adverse;細節題。此題的定位信息為題干的“transient investment”，直接定位到第三段的第二句“Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty”，從四個選項的褒貶正負來看indirect、minimal 和temporary為中性的表述，只有B選項的adverse為明確的負面表達，意思為“不利的”，與原文中的“hinder”(阻礙打擾)對應上。
24.【C】the approaches to promoting "long-termism" ;例證題。根據題干的具體信息定位，美國和法國的例子是用來支撐什么論點。原文的第五、六段則提供了具體的信息，第五段中美國延遲發放才上任一年左右的高管績效津貼，繼而促進緩解“短期主義”盛行的現狀;第六段則提及在法國持股兩年以上者擁有更大的選票權。所以，最佳選項應為“促進長期主義的方法”，與原文一致;
25.【B】Patience as a Corporate Virtue;主旨題。題干中的title為標題題的信息，所以此題考查的是文章的主旨大意;B 選項里的patience可以對應到全文中反復出現的主題詞“short-termism”和“long-termism”，corporate本身在文章中出現多次，所以B 選項則為最近標題，體現主旨大意;其余選項均不能概括全文，故排除。
Grade inflation--the gradual increase in average GPAs(grade-point averages) over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. But another, related force—a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”—is helping raise GPAs.
Grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a student’s overall GPA.
The use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates. When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. But now most colleges save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.
College officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big penalty. “Untimely,” said Jack Miner, Ohio State University’s registrar,“we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”
That said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. For public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. And anything that raises GPAs will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.
Indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for higher education. Since students and parents expect a college degree to lead a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be. On this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.
26. What is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?
A. The change of course catalogs.
B. Students’ indifference to GPAS.
C. Colleges’ neglect of GPAS.
D. The influence of consumer culture.
27. What was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?
A. To help freshmen adapt to college learning.
B. To maintain colleges’ graduation rates.
C. To prepare graduates for a challenging future.
D. To increase universities’ income from tuition.
28. According to Paragraph 5,grade forgiveness enable colleges to_________.
A. obtain more financial support
B. boost their student enrollments
C. improve their teaching quality
D. meet local governments’ needs
29. What does the phrase “to be aligned”(Line 5, Para.6) most probably mean?
A. To counterbalance each other.
B. To complement each other.
C. To be identical with each other.
D. To be contradictory to each other.
30. The author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by________.
A. assessing its feasibility
B. analyzing the causes behind it
C. comparing different views on it
D. listing its long-run effects
26.【D】The influence of consumer culture;細節題。根據題干中的關鍵詞grade inflation 可以定位到首段第一句話，此句話的句子主干：“Grade inflation is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education.” 題干中的be regarded as對應原文中的is considered，題干中的the cause of(后邊接結果)與原文中的a product of (前邊接結果)都表示因果關系。選項D中consumer是原文中的復現，其他選項都不具備干擾性，因此答案選擇D。
27.【A】To help freshmen adapt to college learning;細節題。根據題干中的關鍵詞，我們只能定位到文章的第二段，但是第二段講的是grade forgiveness具體是什么，并沒有提及它的目的，然后接下看第三段的首句，出現了this little-known practice指的就是grade forgiveness。而且題干中的the original purpose對應原文中的在第三段第二句話: “When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses.”選項A中的freshmen是原詞復現，help是對應原文中的give them a second chance，adapt to對應原文中的struggled in their transition to，college learning對應原文中的college-level courses。因此答案為A。
28.【A】obtain more financial support;細節題。根據題干中的關鍵詞paragraph 5、grade forgiveness和colleges可以定位到第五段的第一句，即grade forgiveness能夠滿足學生的需求，但是對應選項并沒有對應的答案，所以接著往下看，提到了國家基金與他們的成功有關，得到更好地分數意為這拿到更多的錢。選項A中的financial support指的就是state funds。因此答案為A。
29.【C】to be identical with each other;猜詞題。根據題干，可以定位到第六段最后一句話：“On this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.”所以解題的關鍵是找到this指代的內容。This指代的是前一句話，即：因為學生和家長都希望通過大學學歷來找工作，所以學校的最佳利益是盡可能地把學生培養成有能力勝任的人，或者至少看起來是那樣。由此可以的出學生和學校的目標是一致的，選項C中的be identical with表示的是與……相同，因此答案為C。
30.【B】analyzing the causes behind it;主旨題。題干的字面意思是作者是通過什么樣的方式來檢驗grade forgiveness的實踐操作，但是是考查文章的主旨，屬于主旨題。閱讀每段的段落大意句，可以得出文章主要講解的是grade forgiveness的原因。因此答案為B。
This year marks exactly two countries since the publication of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Shelley. Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come.
Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) raises fundamental questions:”What is intelligence, identify, or
consciousness? What makes humans humans?”
What is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientists. Yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans, similar to those recently depicted on popular sci-fi TV series such as “Westworld” and “Humans”.
Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman, a Stanford University neuroscientist. “We are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousnesss actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”
But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving AI aren’t at hand. The coming use of autonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. Human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. Their reactions may be a complex combination of instant reflexes, input from past driving experiences, and what their eyes and ears tell them in that moment. AI “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.
Whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes Tan Kiat How, chief executive of a Singapore-based agency that is helping the government develop a voluntary code for the ethical use of AI. Along with Singapore, other governments and mega-corporations are beginning to establish their own guidelines. Britain is setting up a data ethics center. India released its AI ethics strategy this spring.
On June 7 Google pledged not to “design or deploy AI” that would cause “overall harm,” or to develop AI-directed weapons or use AI for surveillance that would violate international norms. It also pledged not to deploy AI whose use would violate international laws or human rights.
While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. So does the idea that decisions made by AI systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.
To put it another way: How can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanity’s highest values? Only then will they be useful servants and not Frankenstein’s out-of-control monster.
31. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein is mentioned because it
A. fascinates AI scientists all over the world.
B. has remained popular for as long as 200 years.
C. involves some concerns raised by AI today.
D. has sparked serious ethical controversies.
32. In David Eagleman’s opinion, our current knowledge of consciousness
A. helps explain artificial intelligence.
B. can be misleading to robot making.
C. inspires popular sci-fi TV series.
D. is too limited for us to reproduce it.
33. The solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehicles
A. can hardly ever be found.
B. is still beyond our capacity.
C. causes little public concern.
D. has aroused much curiosity.
34. The author’s attitude toward Google’s pledge is one of
35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. AI’s Future: In the Hands of Tech Giants
B. Frankenstein, the Novel Predicting the Age of AI
C. The Conscience of AI: Complex But Inevitable
D. AI Shall Be Killers Once Out of Control
31.【C】involves some concerns raised by AI today; 通過題干Mary Shelly’s novel Frankenstein及題文同序原則可定位至文章第一段，在該段尾句,fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come. 此句中 ethical questions 可同義替換題干中的concern。故C為正選。
32.【D】is too limited for us to reproduce it;觀點細節題?？赏ㄟ^關鍵詞consciousness 回文定位至原文第2段尾句部分：we are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there. 可知我們將意識注入機器的能力是有限的，因為沒有好的理論可以解釋。
33.【B】is still beyond our capacity;根據題干關鍵詞可定位至文章第3段,AI “vision”today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans.And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.該句說到：當下，人工智能的思維還不能達到人類的精密程度，去讓機器去預設每一種駕駛情形是一個困難的編程問題。由此說明，去解決人工智能所帶來的道德問題，是在人類的能力范圍之外的。
34.【A】affirmation;態度題 ，根據題干中的 the author’s attitude ,Google’s pledges.回文定位到第八段，，開頭while轉折，while the statement is vague, 與vague相反的即是觀點，所以表示正向情感的詞即是正解。affirmation表示確定。
35.【C】Frankenstein, the Novel predicting the Age of AI;主旨題。本文首段通過引用Mary Shelley的書引出本文要探討的話題新技術所引發的道德問題。特別是在最后一段指出AI所涉及的道德問題已經觸手可及。全篇復現了AI和conscience這兩個關鍵詞，所以答案選C
States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.
The Supreme Court’s opinion Thursday overruled a pair of decades-old decisions that states said cost them billions of dollars in lost revenue annually. The decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.
The cases the court overturned said that if a business was shipping a customer’s purchase to a state where the business didn’t have a physical presence such as a warehouse or office, the business didn’t have to collect sales tax for the state. Customers were generally responsible for paying the sales tax to the state themselves if they weren’t charged it, but most didn’t realize they owed it and few paid.
Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that the previous decisions were flawed. “Each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the States,” he wrote in an opinion joined by four other justices. Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.”
The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already. Now, rivals will be charging sales tax where they hadn’t before. Big chains have been collecting sales tax nationwide because they typically have physical stores in whatever state a purchase is being shipped to. Amazon.com, with its network of warehouses, also collects sales tax in every state that charges it, though third-party sellers who use the site don’t have to.
Until now, many sellers that have a physical presence in only a single state or a few states have been able to avoid charging sales taxes when they ship to addresses outside those states. Sellers that use eBay and Etsy, which provide platforms for smaller sellers, also haven’t been collecting sales tax nationwide. Under the ruling Thursday, states can pass laws requiring out-of-state sellers to collect the state’s sales tax from customers and send it to the state.
Retail trade groups praised the ruling, saying it levels the playing field for local and online businesses. The losers, said retail analyst Neil Saunders, are online-only retailers, especially smaller ones. Those retailers may face headaches complying with various state sales tax laws. The
Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council advocacy group said in a a statement, “Small businesses and internet entrepreneurs are not well served at all by this decision.”
36. The Supreme Court decision Thursday will
A. Dette business’ relutions with states
B. put most online business in a dilemma
C. make more online shoppers pay sales tax
D. forces some states to cut sales tax
37. It can be learned from paragraphs 2 and 3 that the overruled decisions
A. have led to the dominance of e-commerce
B. have cost consumers a lot over the years
C. were widely criticized by online purchases
D. were considered up favorable by states
38. According to Justice Anthony Kennedy, the physical presence rule has
A. hindered economic development
B. brought prosperity to the country
C. harmed fair market competition
D. boosted growth in states revenue
39. Who are most likely to welcome the Supreme Court ruling
A. Internet entrepreneurs B. Big-chain owners
C. Third-party sellers D. Small retailers
40. In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday, the author
A. gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences
B. describes the long and complicated process of its making
C. presents its main points with conflicting views on them
D. cities some saces related to it and analyzes their implications
36.【C】 make more online shoppers pay sales tax;本題為細節題，根據題干關鍵字“the Supreme Court decision Thursday”定位到原文第一段“States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that ...”前半句已經明確提出各州的在線購物可能要交稅，對應選項C，原詞“ online”加“ shoppers”對“purchase”的同義替換。其他三個選項均為提及。
37.【D】were considered up favorable by states;根據題干“learned”可知本題為推理題，根據關鍵字“the overruled decisions ”定位到原文第二段的兩句，大意為“州政府抱怨以前的政策使每年稅收損失慘重，因此以前的政策很難再收取網上營業稅”兩句表示出的意思都是對州政府的不利，對比四個選項，得出答案D,州政府認為原政策對州會不利，因此駁回這項決定會對州有有利，為正話反說。
38.【C】harmed fair market competition;本題為細節題，根據題干關鍵詞“Justice Anthony Kennedy”“the physical presence rule”定位到原文第四段的第二句和第三句，大意為實體店規定導致州政府稅收虧損，接著下一句Kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented from on an even playing field.”該規定限制了州政府長期繁榮，并妨礙市場參與者參與公平競爭。對比四個選項，D選項為“破壞了公平市場競爭”和原文“competing”“ market participant”一一對應，為正確答案。
39.【B】Big-chair owners;根據題干“likely”得出本題為推理題，利用關鍵詞“welcome the Supreme Court ruling”定位到原文第五段第一句“ The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since....”對于大公司來說這項規定是一種勝利，因為...，只需找到關鍵詞 “big chain”即可選出B選項：大型連鎖公司。
40.【D】cities some cases related to it and analyzes their implications;本題為主旨題，需找出作者的相應觀點與論證，根據題干關鍵詞In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday”回顧每段首尾句，推測每段大意，第一段講述最高法院通過了征收在線營業稅的決定，第二段介紹之前的裁決及后果是對州政府不利的，第三段介紹了原來裁決涉及到的案例，第四段陳列了法官的觀點，即以前的裁決是有問題的，第五段主要講述新判決會對大型連鎖超市產生有利的影響，第六段講述新裁決對州外賣價的影響，第七段表示新的判決得到零售界的肯定，因此本文的思路為：首段引出新判決，二三四段列舉相關案例，五六七段對其影響進行講述，對比四個選項，得出D:作者在講述這個判決時引用了相關案例并分析了他們的影響。
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraph C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
A. These tools can help you win every argument-not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. Learning why they disagree with us and learning to talk and work together with them. If we readjust our view of arguments—from a verbal fight or tennis game to a reasoned exchange through which we all gain mutual respect, and understanding—then we change the very nature of what it means to “win” an argument.
B. Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. We need to learn how to evaluate them properly. A large part of evaluation is calling out bad arguments, but we also need to admit good arguments by opponents and to apply the same critical standards to ourselves. Humility requires you to recognize weakness in your own arguments and sometimes also to accept reasons on the opposite side.
C. None of these will be easy but you can start even if others refuse to. Next time you state your position, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourself whether your argument is any good. Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.
D. Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them. Like physical fights, verbal fights can leave both sides bloodied. Even when you win, you end up no better off. Your prospects would be almost as dismal if arguments were even just competitions-like, say, tennis games. Paris of opponents hit the ball back and forth until one winner emerges from all who entered. Everybody else loses. This kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoid arguments, especially about politics and religion.
E. In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People , Dale Carnegie wrote: “there is only one way…to get the
best of an argument-and that is to avoid it. “This aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profound problems for our personal and social lives- and in many ways misses the point of arguing in the first place.
F. These views of arguments also undermine reason. If you see a conversation as a fight or competition, you can win by cheating as long as you don’t get caught. You will be happy to convince people with bad arguments. You can call their views stupid, or joke about how ignorant they are. None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win-in one way.
G. There is a better way to win arguments. Imagine that you favor increasing the minimum wage in our state, and I do not. If you yell, “yes,” and I yell. “No,” neither of us learns anything. We neither understand nor respect each other, and we have no basis for compromise or cooperation. In contrast, suppose you give a reasonable argument: that full-time workers should not have to live in poverty. Then I counter with another reasonable argument: that a higher minimum wage will force businesses to employ fewer people for less time. Now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers.
E D G B A
41. E [In his 1936 work How to Win Friends and Influence People , Dale Carnegie wrote: “there is only one way…to get the best of an argument-and that is to avoid it.]
段落排序解題若首段未給出，首先需要大家通讀全部選項首句話，本句首句話中的句間銜接關系排除選首段。本篇文章中，A選項第一句話中含有指代關系詞these 故根據該詞確定本選項直接排除，B選項有of cause銜接上下文的詞出現，D選項可以作為首段的可能選項，E選項也可以作為首段的可能選項，G選項首句中含有better way比較級，故本題的答案應在D或E選項中得出，根據D選項人物Carnegie和E選項人物Dale Carnegie的名稱特點，可以得知首次出現應為全名形式，故本題的答案應為E選項。
42. D [Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them.]
43. G [There is a better way to win arguments. ]
該題上一段最后一句話為“None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win -- in one way.”可知these tricks是對上文信息的否定，下文應該復現win arguments的肯定的表述，根據選項分析可知G選項首句There is a better way to win arguments.正好與F選項尾句形成首尾銜接。
44. B [Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. ]
該題上段為G段，尾句講述的是 Now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers. 而根據銜接可確定G段講述的是成功的討論，B選項首句not so successful正銜接上文，轉折講述不成功的案例。
45. A [These tools can help you win every argument--not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. ]
上段C選項中 Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.最后這幾句話主要講的是有關于談話的四種手段，正好與A選項首句中的These tools 形成呼應關系，故本題答案應為A選項。
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
It was only after I started to write a weekly column about the medical journals, and began to read scientific papers from beginning to end, that I realised just how bad much of the medical literature frequently was. I came to recognise various signs of a bad paper: the kind of paper that purports to show that people who eat more than one kilo of broccoli a week were 1.17 times more likely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia. (46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.
Why is so much bad science published? A recent paper, titled “The Natural Selection of Bad Science”, published on the Royal Society’s open science website, attempts to answer this intriguing and important question. It says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science, but that our current system of career advancement positively encourages it. What is important is not truth, but publication, which has become almost an end in itself. There has been a kind of inflationary process at work: (47) nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago. Never mind the quality, then, count the number.
(48) Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers. This is the famed citation index, that is to say the number of times a paper has been quoted elsewhere in the scientific literature, the assumption being that an important paper will be cited more often than one of small account. (49) This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.
Boiling down an individual’s output to simple metrics, such as number of publications or journal impacts, entails considerable savings in time, energy and ambiguity. Unfortunately, the long-term costs of using simple quantitative metrics to assess researcher merit are likely to be quite great. (50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.
(46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.
結構分析：含有定語從句和狀語從句的復合句。句子主干為：There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense. in the medical journals為介詞短語作狀語修飾主干內容，其中名詞journals又帶有一個由which引導的定語從句，which 指代nonsense, 而定語從句中又含有一個由when引導的狀語從句，從句層層包裹，形成復合句，翻譯時注意理清從句間的關系。
(47) Nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago.
結構分析：含有分詞結構和定語從句的復合句。句子主干為：nowadays anyone … has to have published twice the number of papers….其中，“applying for a research post”為現在分詞短語作定語修飾anyone,“that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago”為定語從句修飾papers, “twice the number of…”為比較結構。
(48) Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers.
結構分析：本句為主謂結構的簡單句。句子主干為：Attempts have been made….其中，“to curb this tendency”和“by…”分別為不定式短語和介詞短語作狀語修飾句子主干內容。
(49) This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.
結構分析：本句為含有狀語從句的復合句。主干為：This would be reasonable…;“…that scientists can…”為that引導的同位語從句解釋說明fact內容。“arrange to cite ….“和”get associates to do so…“為動賓結構并列和前面名詞scientists構成主謂賓結構。
(50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.
結構分析：本句為含有狀語從句和賓語從句的復合句。主干為：…we must ensure that…其中，“if we are serious about…”為條件狀語從句，“ensuring that …”為現在分詞結構作介詞賓語;“…that our institutions encourage that kind of science”為ensure引導的賓語從句。
Section Ⅲ Writing
Suppse you are working for the “Aiding rurd Primary School” project of your university. Write an email to answer the inquiry from an international student volunteer, specifying details of the project.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the email. Use “Li Ming” instead.(10 points)
I am greatly pleased to receive your letter and I am writing to you to express my sincere hope that I can offer you some details about the project of Aiding Rural Primary School, the details are as follows.
In the first place, the aim of this project is to help rural children in a poor financial condition to improve their English, which needs you make an English teaching plan in advance. In the second place, this project will be held at June, lasting about 15days, therefore it is essential for you to prepare some clothes and daily necessities.In the last place, importance should be attached to the role played by the language due to the fact that there is a few people understanding English, which needs you are capable of speaking basic Chinese.
I wish my introduction could satisfy your requirement, and look forward to discussing more details with you.
Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay, you should
1) describe the pictures briefly,
2) interpret the meaning, and
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
The cartoon provides us with a thought-provoking scene: two men are climbing a hill, but one of them desires to give up due to tiredness, while the other one encourages him to keep going.
Undoubtedly, the cartoonist aims at reminding us of the significance of persistence. At the top of the list, we should attach importance to perseverance mainly due to that it can enable us to ameliorate ourselves so we can be qualified for future career promotion, and be ready for meeting the forthcoming challenges.What’s more, we ought to place a high value on the role played by persistence in personal growth. Put it another way, in this ever-changing world, perseverance is to personal growth what water is to fish. To sum up, if persistence misses our attention in any possible way, we will suffer a great loss beyond imagination.
Hence, it is vital for us to derive positive implications from the above cartoon. For one thing, we should frequently use it to enlighten the young. For another, we should cultivate the awareness of teenagers that it is very vital to keep going toward our goals. Only by doing so, can we become winner in the face of difficulties.